Because the heart is composed primarily of cardiac muscle tissue that continuously contracts and relaxes, it must have a constant supply of oxygen and nutrients. The coronary arteries are the network of blood vessels that carry oxygen- and nutrient-rich blood to the cardiac muscle tissue.The blood leaving the left ventricle exits through the aorta, the body’s main artery. Two coronary arteries, referred to as the “left” and “right” coronary arteries, emerge from the beginning of the aorta, near the top of the heart.
The superior vena cava is one of the two main veins bringing de-oxygenated blood from the body to the heart. Veins from the head and upper body feed into the superior vena cava, which empties into the right atrium of the heart.
The inferior vena cava is one of the two main veins bringing de-oxygenated blood from the body to the heart. Veins from the legs and lower torso feed into the inferior vena cava, which empties into the right atrium of the heart.
The pulmonary artery is the vessel transporting de-oxygenated blood from the right ventricle to the lungs. A common misconception is that all arteries carry oxygen-rich blood. It is more appropriate to classify arteries as vessels carrying blood away from the heart.
The pulmonary vein is the vessel transporting oxygen-rich blood from the lungs to the left atrium. A common misconception is that all veins carry de-oxygenated blood. It is more appropriate to classify veins as vessels carrying blood to the heart.
The tricuspid valve separates the right atrium from the right ventricle. It opens to allow the de-oxygenated blood collected in the right atrium to flow into the right ventricle. It closes as the right ventricle contracts, preventing blood from returning to the right atrium; thereby, forcing it to exit through the pulmonary valve into the pulmonary artery.
The mitral valve separates the left atrium from the left ventricle. It opens to allow the oxygenated blood collected in the left atrium to flow into the left ventricle. It closes as the left ventricle contracts, preventing blood from returning to the left atrium; thereby, forcing it to exit through the aortic valve into the aorta.
The pulmonary valve separates the right ventricle from the pulmonary artery. As the ventricles contract, it opens to allow the de-oxygenated blood collected in the right ventricle to flow to the lungs. It closes as the ventricles relax, preventing blood from returning to the heart.
The aortic valve separates the left ventricle from the aorta. As the ventricles contract, it opens to allow the oxygenated blood collected in the left ventricle to flow throughout the body. It closes as the ventricles relax, preventing blood from returning to the heart.
The below mentioned diagnostic test are required to diagnose a heart disorder:-
Electrocardiograph test:-Use the electrocardiogram to evaluate the electrical activity generated by the heart at rest and with activity.
Treadmill Test:-a test to evaluate the energy level and tenacity of the heart.
Nuclear Imaging:-a method of producing images by detecting radiation from different parts of the body after the administration of a radioactive tracer material.
Ultrasound Test:-Uses ultrasound, or high frequency sound wave, to create graphic images of the heart’s structures, pumping action, and direction of blood flow.
Radiographic Test:-X-ray machines or very high tech machines (CT, MRI) are used to create pictures of the internal structures of the chest
Testing:-Its involves inserting catheters into the blood vessels of the heart in order to get a closer look at the coronary arteries or to stimulate and test the electrical system of the heart.
Laboratory Test:-It includes a number of blood tests used to diagnose and monitor treatment for heart disease.
CABG is a surgical procedure in which one or more blocked coronary arteries are bypassed by a blood vessel graft to restore normal blood flow to the heart. These grafts usually come from the patient’s own arteries and veins located in the chest (thoracic), leg (saphenous) or arm (radial). The graft goes around the blocked artery (or arteries) to create new pathways for oxygen-rich blood to flow to the heart.
The goals of the procedure are to relieve symptoms of coronary artery disease(including angina), enable the patient to resume a normal lifestyle and to lower the risk of a heart attack or other heart problems.
Heart valve surgery is a procedure used to repair or replace diseased heart valves. Over the past few years, there have been great advances in the surgical treatment of diseased heart valves by heart valve surgery. The diagnostic tests your heart doctor orders help to identify the location, type and extent of your valve disease. The results of these tests, the structure of your heart, your age, and your lifestyle will help your cardiologist, surgeon, and you decide what type of heart valve surgery procedure will be best for you.
As cardiologists and heart surgeons search for new techniques to treat heart and vascular disease in less invasive ways, many new percutaneous (also called endovascular) procedures are evolving that will provide non-surgical treatment options for patients in the future. Instead of the large incision required for traditional heart or vascular surgery, percutaneous approaches use special catheters and devices to treat the problem through one or more small puncture sites through the skin. Endoscopic approaches are a subset of percutaneous approaches that use one or more small puncture sites and a thin video instrument with a small camera at the tip. This scope transmits a picture of the internal organs on a video monitor to give the surgeon a close-up view of the surgical area as he performs the procedure. For the patient, percutaneous procedures mean very small incisions and a much quicker recovery time. Even better, they may offer options for some patients who could not undergo conventional surgery due to poor heart function or additional medical problems.
Ascending aorta, aortic arch, descending aorta, thoracoabdominal repairs, thoracic and abdominal aorta endovascular stent graft procedures are all performed by a multidisciplinary surgical team.
Every heart surgery will decrease the sickness, pain and other symptoms; you will still need to decrease your risk factors by making lifestyle changes, taking medications as prescribed and following your doctor’s recommendations to prevention future disease. Lifestyle changes include: